Design of High Performance DC Motor Actuated Cable Driving System for Compact Devices

Chawaphol Direkwatana, Jackrit Suthakorn


The cable transmission is widely used in the remote operation or complex geometry with high stiffness and low backlash. Larger drum is required to reduce and error of transmission in long stroke. An error of the desired position occurs due to the fleet angle while cable winding on a drum. Therefore, a new cable driving module which overcomes this problem is proposed. A new cable driving module with a sliding platform is connected to the actuator unit. A motion of the sliding platform is corresponding to a screw rod connected to an actuator. The precision of the driving system is measured by a high-resolution rotatory encoder and high gear ratio actuator. Results are measured by load and error of the system. A load of system shows a performance of overall translation and rotation of the drum at different speeds. An error of the system is measured from forward and reverse direction by increasing and decreasing the number of turns with constant speed. A system has an average load consumption along a long stroke of cable winding which has no significant problem on the screw platform. Multiple turns have low error value in specific and continuous turn in forward and reverse motion. A new cable driving system is proved in precision movement. The fleet angle is eliminated in new mechanism. Along with a constraint motion, there is no significant change in load consumption. An error is low value in a different direction of movement. Hence, a new design of cable transmission can perform in high performance and small size of the system


Sung-Kyun Kim, Won-Ho Shin, Seong-Young KO, Jonathan Kim and Dong-Soo Kwo, “Design of a Compact 5-DOF Surgical Robot of a Spherical Mechanism: CURES,” International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics, Xi'an, China, pp. 990-995, 2008.

Won-Ho Shin and Dong-Soo Kwon, “Surgical Robot System for Single-Port Surgery with Novel Joint Mechanism,” IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, Vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 937 – 944, 2013.

Weihai Chen, Quanzhu Chen, Jianbin Zhang and Shouqian Yu, “Kinematics Control for a 7-DOF Cable-Driven Anthropomorphic Arm,” International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Beijing, China, pp.1650-1655, 2006.

H. Fang, L. Guo, and S. Bai, “A light weight arm designed with modular joints,” Recent Advances in Mechanism Design for Robotics, vol. 33, pp. 47–54, 2015.

L. Zhou, S. Bai, and M. R. Hansen, “Integrated dimensional and drivetrain design optimization of a lightweight anthropomorphic arm,” Robotics and Autonomous Systems, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 113–122, 2012.

E. Cambell et al., “Design of a low-cost series elastic actuator for multirobot manipulation,” IEEE International Conference on Robotic and Automation, Shanghai, China, pp. 5395–5400, 2011.

Y.-J. Kim, J. Kim, J.-W. Lee, K.-M. Park, K.-S. Roh, and J.-Y. Choi, “RoboRay hand: A highly back drivable robotic hand with sensorless contact force measurements,” IEEE International Conference on Robotic and Automation, pp. 6712–6718, 2014.

T. Lens and O. von Stryk, “Investigation of safety in human-robot interaction for a series elastic, tendon-driven robot arm,” IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and System, Vilamoura, Portugal, pp. 4309–4314, 2012.

M. Quigley, A. Asbeck, and A. Ng, “A low-cost compliant 7-DOF robotic manipulator,” IEEE International Conference on Robotic and Automation, Shanghai, China, pp. 6051–6058, 2011.

DongGyu Lee and TaeWon Seo, “Lightweight Multi-DOF Manipulator with Wire-Driven Gravity Compensation Mechanism,” IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 1308 – 1314, 2017.

Yong-Jae Kim, “Anthropomorphic Low-Inertia High-Stiffness Manipulator for High-Speed Safe Interaction,” IEEE Transactions on Robotics, vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 1358 – 1374, 2017.

J. K. Salisbury and W. T. Townsend, “Compact cable transmission with cable differential,” U.S. Patent 5207114A, May 5, 1993.

C. Direkwatana, and J. Suthakorn, “Development of Wire-driven Laparoscopic Surgical Robotic System, MU-LapaRobot,” IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Biomimetic, Thailand, pp 485-490, 2011.

M. J. H. Lum, J. Rosen, M. N. Sinanan, and B. Hannaford, “Optimization of a spherical mechanism for a minimally invasive surgical robot: Theoretical and experimental approaches,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., vol. 53, no. 7, pp. 1440–1445, 2006.

Mitchell J. H. Lum, Diana C. W. Friedman, Ganesh Sankaranarayanan, Hawkeye King, Kenneth Fodero II, Rainer Leuschke et al., “The RAVEN: Design and Validation of a Telesurgery System,” The International Journal of Robotics Research, Vol. 28, No. 9, pp. 1183–1197, 2009.

G. Guthart and J. Salisbury, “The intuitive telesurgery system: Overview and application,” IEEE Conference on Robotics and Automation, CA, USA, pp. 618–621, 2000.

C. Ishii, K. Kobayashi, Y. Kamei, and Y. Nishitani, “Robotic forceps manipulator with a novel bending mechanism,” IEEE/ASME Transection on Mechatronics, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 671–684, 2010

H. Yamashita, A. Iimura, E. Aoki, T. Suzuki, T. Nakazawa, E. Kobayashi, M. Hashizume, I. Sakuma, and T. Dohi, “Development of endoscopic forceps manipulator using multi-slider linkage mechanisms,” Asian Symposium on Computer Aided Surgery-Robotic and Image Guided Surgery, Ibaraki, Japan, pp. 201–204, 2005.

T. Y. Nai, J. L. Herder, and G. J. M. Tuijthof, “Steerable mechanical joint for high load transmission in minimally invasive instruments,” ASME Journal of Medical Devices, vol. 5, pp. 034503-1–034503-6, 2011.

L. E. Carlson, B. D. Veatch, and D. D. Frey, “Efficiency of prosthetic cable and housing,” Journal of Prosthetics and Orthotics, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 96–99, 1995.

K. Nishizawa and K. Kishi, “Development of interference-free wire driven joint mechanism for surgical manipulator systems,” Journal of Robotics and Mechatronics, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 116–121, 2004.

Changquing Li and Christopher D. Rahn, “Design of Continuous Backbone, Cable-Driven Robots,” Journal of Mechanical Design, vol. 124, no. 2, pp. 265-271, 2002.

Salih Abdelaziz, Laure Esteveny, Laurent Barbe, Pierre Renaud, Bernard Bayle, and Michel de Mathelin, “Development of a MRcompatible cable-driven manipulator,” IEEE Conference on Robotics and Automation, Minnesota, USA, pp. 1488-1494, 2012.

Nikolai Hungr, Ivan Bricault, Philippe Cinquin, and Celine Fouard, “Design and validation of a CT-and MRI-guided robot for percutaneous needle procedures,” IEEE Transactions on Robotics, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 973–987, 2016.

Yeongjin Kim, Shing Shin Cheng, Aleksandrs Ecins, Cornelia Fermuller, Kelly P Westlake, and Jaydev P Desai, “Towards a robotic hand rehabilitation exoskeleton for stroke therapy,” ASME 2014 Dynamic Systems and Control Conference, Texas, USA, pp. V001T04A006; 9 pages, 2014.

Tian Fuxiang and Wang Xingsong, “The design of a tendon-sheath driven robot,” International journal of intelligent systems technologies and applications, vol. 8, no.1, pp.215–230, 2009.

Chen Lin, Wang Xingsong, and Tian Fuxiang, “Tendon-sheath actuated robots and transmission system,” International Conference on Mechatronics and Automation, Changchun, China, pp. 3173–3178, 2009.

Soo J Phee, SC Low, Paolo Dario, and Arianna Menciassi, “Tendon sheath analysis for estimation of distal end force and elongation for sensorless distal end,” Robotica, vol, 28, no. 07, pp.1073–1082, 2010.

M. H. Letier, P. A. Schiele, M. Avraam, M. Horodinca, and A. Preumont, “Bowden cable actuator for torque-feedback in haptic applications,” Proc. Eurohaptics, pp. 1–6, 2006.

K. Kong, J. Bae, and M. Tomizuka, “Torque mode control of a cabledriven actuating system by sensor fusion,” Journal of Dynamic System, Measurement, and control, vol. 135, no. 3, pp.031003, 2013.

V.Agrawal, W.J.Peine and B.Yao, “Modeling of transmission characteristics across a cable-conduit system,” IEEE Transaction on Robotics, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 914–924, 2010.

Y. Mao and S. K. Agrawal, “A cable driven upper arm exoskeleton for upper extremity rehabilitation,” IEEE Conference on Robot and Automation, Shanghai, China, pp. 4163–4168, 2011.

Ying Mao and Sunil Kumar Agrawal, “Design of a Cable-Driven Arm Exoskeleton (CAREX) for Neural Rehabilitation,” IEEE Transactions on Robotics, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 922 – 931, 2012.

G. Rosati, M. Andreolli, A. Biondi, and P. Gallin, “Performance of cable suspended robots for upper limb rehabilitation,” IEEE International conference on Rehabilitation Robotics, Netherlands, pp. 385–392, 2007.

K. Homma, O. Fukuda, J. Sugawara, Y. Nagata, and M. Usuba, “A wiredriven leg rehabilitation system: Development of a 4-DOF experimental system,” IEEE/ASME International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics, Japan, pp. 908–913, 2003.

M. Otis, M. Mokhtari, C. du Tremblay, D. Laurendeau, F. De Rainville, and C. Gosselin, “Hybrid control with multi-contact interactions for 6DOF haptic foot platform on a cable-driven locomotion interface,” Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems, USA, pp. 161–168, 2008.

Xiang Cui, Weihai Chen, Xin Jin, Sunil K. Agrawal, “Design of a 7-DOF Cable-Driven Arm Exoskeleton (CAREX-7) and a Controller for Dexterous Motion Training or Assistance,” IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 161-172, 2017.

G. Rosati, P. Gallina, and S. Masiero, “Design, implementation and clinical tests of a wire-based robot for neurorehabilitation,” IEEE Trans. Neural Syst. Rehabil. Eng., vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 560–569, 2007.

S. Mustafa and S. K. Agrawal, “On the force-closure analysis of n-DOF cable-driven open chains based on reciprocal screw theory,” IEEE Transaction on Robotics, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 22–31, 2012.

J. Wang, X. Cui, W. Chen, and Y. Jin, “Dynamic analysis of cable-driven humanoid arm based on Lagrange’s equation,” Advances in Reconfigurable Mechanisms and Robots I, J. S. Dai, M. Zoppi, and X. Kong, Eds. London, U.K.: Springer, 2012, pp. 619–628.

G. Yang, H. L. Ho, W. Chen, W. Lin, S. H. Yeo, and M. Kurbanhusen, “A haptic device wearable on a human arm,” IEEE conference on Robotics, Automation and Mechatronics, Singapore, pp. 243–247, 2004.

E. Brackbill, Y. Mao, S. Agrawal, M. Annapragada, and V. Dubey, “Dynamics and control of a 4-DOF wearable cable-driven upper arm exoskeleton,” IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Kobe, Japan, pp. 2300–2305, 2009.

S. Oh and S. Agrawal, “Cable suspended planar robots with redundant cables: Controllers with positive tensions,” IEEE Transaction on Robotics, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 457–465, 2005.

S. Oh and S. Agrawal, “Generation of feasible set points and control of a cable robot,” IEEE Transaction on Robotics, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 551–558, 2006.

S. Oh and S. Agrawal, “The feasible workspace analysis of a set point control for a cable-suspended robot with input constraints and disturbances,” IEEE Transaction on Control System Technology, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 735–742, 2006.

M. Gouttefarde and C. M. Gosselin, “Analysis of the wrench-closure workspace of planar parallel cable-driven mechanisms,” IEEE Transaction on Robotics, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 434–445, 2006.

C. B. Pham, S. H. Yeo, G. Yang, M. S. Kurbanhusen, and I. M. Chen, “Force-closure workspace analysis of cable-driven parallel mechanisms,” Mechanism and Machine Theory, vol. 41, pp. 53–69, 2006.

S. Agrawal, X. Chen, J. Galloway, “Training Special Needs Infants to Drive Mobile Robots Using Force-Feedback Joystick,” IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, pp. 4797–4802, 2010.

Y. Mao and S. Agrawal, “Wearable cable-driven upper arm exoskeleton— Motion with transmitted joint force and moment minimization,” IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, AK, USA, pp. 4334–4339, 2010.

K. A. Witte, J. Zhang, R. W. Jackson, and S. H. Collins, “Design of two lightweight, high-bandwidth torque-controlled ankle exoskeletons,” IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, USA, pp. 1223–1228, 2015.

Hyunki In, Useok Jeong, Haemin Lee, Kyu-Jin Cho, “A Novel Slack-Enabling Tendon Drive That Improves Efficiency, Size, and Safety in Soft Wearable Robots,” IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 56-70, 2017.

S. Lee, K. A. Landers, and H.-S. Park, “Development of a biomimetic hand exotendon device (BiomHED) for restoration of functional hand movement post-stroke,” IEEE Trans. Neural Syst. Rehabil. Eng., vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 886–898, 2014.

Y.-L. Park et al., Design and control of a bio-inspired soft wearable robotic device for ankle-foot rehabilitation, Bioinspir. Biomim. vol. 9, no. 1, Art. 016007, 2014.

V. Bartenbach, K. Schmidt, M. Naef, D. Wyss, and R. Riener, “Concept of a soft exosuit for the support of leg function in rehabilitation,” IEEE International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics, Singapore, pp. 125–130, 2015.

H. In, B. B. Kang, M. Sin, and K. Cho, “Exo-Glove: Soft wearable robot for the hand using soft tendon routing system,” IEEE Robotics and Automation magazine, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 97–105, 2015.

S. Ball, I. Brown, and S. Scott, “Medarm: a rehabilitation robot with 5dof at the shoulder complex,” IEEE/ASME international conference on Advanced intelligent mechatronics, pp. 1–6, 2007.

S. K. Banala, S. H. Kim, S. K. Agrawal, and J. P. Scholz, “Robot assisted gait training with active leg exoskeleton (alex),” IEEE Trans. Neural Syst. Rehabil. Eng., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 2–8, 2008.

J. Emken, R. Benitez, and D. Reinkensmeyer, “Human-robot cooperative movement training: Learning a novel sensory motor transformation during walking with robotic assistance-as-needed,” J. Neuroeng. Rehabil. vol. 4, no. 8, pp. 1-16, 2007.

Duschau-Wicke, J. von Zitzewitz, A. Caprez, L. Lunenburger, and R. Riene, “Path control: A method for patient-cooperative robot-aided gait rehabilitation,” IEEE Trans. Neural Syst. Rehabil. Eng., vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 38–48, 2010.

S. Kawamura and K. Ito, “A New Type of Master Robot for Teleoperation Using A Radial Wire Drive System,” IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, vol. 1, pp. 55-60, 1993.

J. V. Zitzewitz, G. Rauter, R. Steiner, A. Brunschweiler, and R. Riener, “A Versatile Wire Robot Concept as a Haptic Interface for Sport Simulation,” IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, pp.313-318, 2009.

T. Koyama, I. Yamano, K. Takemura, and T. Maeno, “Multi-Fingered Exoskeleton Haptic Device using Passive Force Feedback for Dexterous Teleoperation,” IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, pp. 2905-2910, 2002.

B. M. Pillai, and J. Suthakorn, “Motion Control Applications: Observer Based DC Motor Parameters Estimation for Novices," International Journal of Power Electronics and Drive Systems (IJPEDS), vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 195-210, 2019.

Y. Hirata, K. Suzuki, and K. Kosuge, “Improvement in the Performance of Passive Motion Support System,” IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, pp. 4272-4277, 2011.

Joan Savall, Javier Martín and Alejo Avello, “High-performance linear cable transmission,” Journal of Mechanical Design, vol. 130, no.6, pp. 064501 (5 pages), 2008.

Jiun-Yih Kuan, Kenneth A. Pasch, and Hugh M. Herr, “A High-Performance Cable-Drive Module for the Development of Wearable Devices,” IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 1238 – 1248, 2018.

Bogdan Vigar, James Sulzer, Roger Gassert, “Design and Evaluation of a Cable-Driven fMRI-Compatible Haptic Interface to Investigate Precision Grip Control,” IEEE transactions on haptics, vol. 9, no. 1, pp.20-32, 2016.

C. H. King, M. O. Culjat, M. L. Franco, C. E. Lewis, E. P. Dutson, W. S. Grundfest, and J. W. Bisley, “Tactile feedback induces reduced grasping force in robot-assisted surgery,” IEEE Trans. Haptics, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 103–110, 2009.

B.M. Pillai, C. Wilasrusmee and J. Suthakorn, “Observer Based Dynamic Control Model for Bilaterally Controlled MU-LapaRobot: Surgical Tool Force Limiting,” International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering, vol. 10, no.1, pp. 828-839, 2020.

Changsheng Li, Xiaoyi GU and Hongliang Ren, “A Cable-Driven Flexible Robotic Grasper with Lego-Like Modular and Reconfigurable Joints,” IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 2757 – 2767, 2017.

Tomohiro Nakano, Yuki Saito and Takahiro Nozaki, and Kouhei Ohnishi, “Variable Tension Control for Master-Slave Tendon-Driven Robot Hand,” International Conference on Mechatronics (ICM), pp. 588-593, 2013.

Jianjun Yuan, Weiwei Wan, Kaiwei Chen, Qi Fang and Weijun Zhang, “Design and Prototyping a Cable-driven Multi-stage Telescopic Arm for Mobile Surveillance Robots,” IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Biomimetics, pp.1845-1850, 2014.

D. Lee, D. Chang, Y. IL Shin, D. Son, T. wan Kim, K.-Y. Lee, and J. Kim, “Design and application of a wire-driven bidirectional telescopic mechanism for workspace expansion with a focus on shipbuilding tasks,” Advanced Robotics, vol. 25, pp. 699–175, 2011.

Yafei Lu, Dapeng Fan, “Transmission backlash of precise cable drive system,” Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science, vol. 227, no. 10, pp. 2256-2267, 2012.

C. Bascom, J.R. Stewart and L.Y. Tang, “Evaluation of pulling rope wear and coefficient of friction for pipe-type cables,” IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 12, no 2, pp. 542–546, 1997.

Total views : 19 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.