Inertial issues in renewable energy integrated systems and virtual inertia techniques

Reshma Mathew, Preetha Parakkat Kesava Panikkar


The global proliferation of renewable energy drastically altered the characteristics of power systems. Integration of clean energy sources reduces the inherent rotational inertia, making the system precarious and susceptible to various disturbances. The major challenges encountered are fast frequency fluctuations, voltage fluctuations, high rate of change of frequency (RoCoF), and frequency nadir. In order to address and adapt to a future low-inertia scenario, it is crucial to understand the effect of inertia on various parameters. This paper introduces a comprehensive review of the fundamental aspects of inertia and challenges that arise due to the reduction in inertia. Researchers have tackled this issue by employing various virtual inertia (VI) emulation techniques, which also have been extensively reviewed in the literature along with their merits, limitations, and recent developments. The impact of RES penetration on system dynamics is analyzed by simulating an IEEE-9 bus system with renewable energy source (RES) in MATLAB/Simulink. Furthermore, a three-phase fault is also introduced, to emphasize the effect of reduced inertia by observing the rotor angle and frequency deviation. The results validate that RES integration and fault location are observed to have a significant impact on stability parameters, making them extremely unstable.


converter interfaced generation; frequency stability; power system stability; renewable energy; rotor angle stability; solar PV; virtual inertia emulation

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