Battery management system on electric bike using Lithium-Ion 18650

Soeprapto Soeprapto, Rini Nur Hasanah, Taufik Taufik


Electric bike (E-Bike) is a bicycle driven using an electric motor and uses batteries as the energy source. It is environmentally friendly as no exhaust gas is resulted during its operation. More than one battery is normally required, being arranged in series or in parallel connection. Over limit or overloaded conditions of battery usage will reduce the lifecycle of battery, speed up its replacement and add to the maintenance cost of electric bike. This paper proposes the prevention of such degrading condition using a tool to manage the battery usage both during the charging and discharging process. The proposed electronic Battery Management System (BMS) serves to regulate, monitor, and maintain the condition of batteries to prevent any possible damage. The resulted BMS design could provide a well balancing action in a battery system consisting of 13 cells utilizing the cell-to-cell active balancing method. The test results showed that the proposed BMS could monitor the individual cell voltage with an average error of 0.032 V (0.824%), while reading the charge and discharge current with an average error of 0.04 A (6.25%), and the battery pack temperature with an average error of 1.21oC (2.9%). Additionally, the BMS could offer a functional battery pack protection system from conditions such as undervoltage, overvoltage, overheat, and overcurrent.

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